Are you tired of squirrels causing chaos in your yard and home? From raiding your bird feeders, digging up flowerpots, these furry critters can be quite a nuisance.
But fear not, below is a comprehensive list of 26 best ways how to get rid of squirrels once and for all.
Whether you prefer natural methods or high-tech gadgets, we’ve got you covered. So, get ready to learn safe and humane ways to get rid of squirrels.
Say goodbye to those pesky squirrels!
Avoid Feeding Squirrels Around Your Home
One of the easiest and most effective ways to get rid of squirrels is to simply stop feeding them! Yes, it may seem counterintuitive, but giving squirrels a free meal only encourages them to stick around and possibly causes more damage to your property.
So, it’s time to put away the birdseed and keep your pet food indoors. Additionally, avoid leaving any snacks or intentionally feeding them for entertainment purposes. By cutting off their food supply, you’ll be well on your way to solving your squirrel woes.
How to Use Hot Pepper Spray to Get Rid of Squirrels
Another very effective way to get rid of squirrels fast is to use Hot Pepper Spray. If used properly, squirrels can be trained to avoid certain areas of your yard with the spicy stuff.
Hot pepper spray is a natural deterrent made from a blend of capsaicin and water that will send squirrels running in the opposite direction.
The spicy taste and scent are an effective and safe solution that won’t harm squirrels or other wildlife.
However, it will irritate their taste buds and sensitive noses which will discourage them from returning to your property.
So, spray it generously around bird feeders, gardens, garbage bins, and any other areas where squirrels tend to cause trouble.
With hot pepper spray in your arsenal, those pesky squirrels won’t stand a chance!
You can make your spray or buy Coles Flaming Squirrel Sauce on Amazon.
How to Use Ammonia as a Repellent for Squirrels
Squirrels hate the strong odor of ammonia and will quickly learn to stay away from areas where it’s present.
To use ammonia as a repellent, mix it with water in a spray bottle and apply it liberally around your yard, garden, or fruit trees.
You can also soak rags or scent tags in the ammonia solution and hang them in problem areas.
It’s an effective and easy solution that will have those squirrels running for the hills.
Just be sure to use gloves and avoid spraying it directly on plants or grass.
Spray Predator Urine to Scare Squirrels Away
If you’re struggling with a squirrel infestation, using predator urine might just be the solution you’re looking for.
This method is effective because the scent of predator urine triggers an instinct in squirrels to avoid the area as they perceive it as a threat.
Two of the most commonly used predator urine are coyote and fox urine.
To use predator urine as a repellent, use soaked rags or scent tags and hang in areas where squirrels are causing problems. Place them around the perimeter of your yard, garden, or fruit trees to create a barrier that squirrels won’t want to cross.
Another effective place to use predator urine is in your attic if squirrels have managed to get inside. Soaked rags or scent tags can be placed in the attic near the entry point to deter squirrels from entering or to drive them out if they’re already there.
It’s important to note that predator urine is not a permanent solution, as the scent will eventually dissipate and lose its effectiveness. You’ll need to regularly reapply the urine to maintain its effectiveness.
Additionally, some people may find the scent of predator urine unpleasant, so it’s important to consider this before using this method.
However, if you’re looking for a natural and effective way to keep squirrels away from your property, using predator urine might be the way to go.
How to Use Peppermint Scent to Deter Squirrels
If you’re not a fan of using predator urine to deter squirrels, another option is to use peppermint oil or scents.
Peppermint is a natural squirrel repellent and has the added benefit of being more pleasant to people than predator urine.
You can place peppermint-soaked cotton balls or rags in areas where squirrels are a problem, such as around your garden, fruit trees, or attic.
You can also spray a peppermint oil mixture around your yard or garden to keep squirrels away. Just be sure to reapply the peppermint regularly, as the scent will dissipate over time.
If you are looking for peppermint spray, here is a link to Mighty Mint which is an Amazon Choice Product.
Use A Decoy Owl to Keep Squirrels Away
Another humane and effective way to keep squirrels away, consider using a decoy owl. This method works by scaring the squirrels away with the appearance of a predator.
To get the most out of your decoy owl, it’s important to place it in the right area. Squirrels tend to hang around bird feeders and gardens, so placing the decoy in these areas can be particularly effective.
The decoy owl should be visible to the squirrels and ideally placed in a tree or on a pole, where it can be seen from a distance.
Keep in mind that the effectiveness of the decoy owl can diminish over time, as the squirrels may become used to it.
To combat this, it’s a good idea to move the decoy around occasionally, so the squirrels don’t become too comfortable.
You may also want to consider pairing the decoy owl with other methods, such as securing your bird feeders or using hot pepper spray in your garden, for added effectiveness.
Overall, using a decoy owl can be a great way to deter squirrels from your property without resorting to harmful methods. Unlike some other methods, such as predator urine, the decoy owl is a more pleasant option for people, as it doesn’t involve any unpleasant odors.
Here is a link to a nice Owl Decoy 2-pack on Amazon.
Give it a try and see how effective it can be in keeping squirrels away from your property.
Get a Dog or Cat to Get Rid of Squirrels
If you’re looking for a different natural and effective way to keep squirrels away from your property, getting a dog or cat might be just the solution you need.
Both dogs and cats have instincts that make them great at keeping unwanted critters at bay.
Dogs, for instance, have a strong prey drive and are natural hunters. They love to chase and bark at squirrels, which can be a great deterrent for these pesky rodents.
Even if your dog doesn’t catch a squirrel, the constant hazing will make it less likely for them to return to your yard.
Certain breeds such as Jack Russell Terriers, Border Terriers, and Rat Terriers are known for being particularly good at hunting small animals, so they might be a good choice if you’re looking for a dog that can double as a squirrel deterrent.
Cats, on the other hand, may not be known for catching squirrels, but their presence alone can be enough to keep them away. Squirrels see cats as predators and are naturally wary of areas where they are present.
While some cats may catch a squirrel if given the opportunity, simply having a cat around can be enough to deter squirrels from visiting your yard.
Encourage Natural Predators to Deter Squirrels
Encouraging natural predators to frequent your property can be an effective and natural way to keep squirrel populations under control.
Hawks, owls, and falcons are natural predators of squirrels and will help keep their numbers in check. One way to encourage these predators is to provide them with nesting boxes or birdhouses in your yard.
When choosing a nesting box or birdhouse, make sure to select one that is appropriate for the type of predator you want to attract. For example, a larger box with a wider entrance hole is best for attracting owls, while a smaller box with a narrow entrance hole is better suited for falcons.
It’s important to note that attracting natural predators to your yard may take some time and patience.
It may take several months or even years for predators to discover and start using the nesting boxes.
Additionally, it’s important to maintain the boxes and keep them clean to ensure that they are a safe and attractive home for predators.
Here is a link to a perfect Screech Owl Box that is paintable and easy to assemble.
If you’re not comfortable installing nesting boxes or birdhouses, you can also encourage natural predators by planting trees and shrubs that provide cover and nesting opportunities for birds of prey.
Providing a reliable water source, such as a bird bath or pond, can also help attract predators to your yard.
Add Pebbles or River Stones in Flowerpots
If you’re tired of squirrels burying their nuts and seeds in your flowerpots, adding pebbles or stones can be an easy solution to keep them away.
Squirrels are known for their love of digging and they’ll quickly find an empty flowerpot as a perfect spot to bury their treasures. However, by adding a layer of pebbles or stones to the top of the soil in your flowerpots, you can discourage them from digging and keep your flowers safe.
The key to using pebbles or stones to keep squirrels away is to cover the soil in your flowerpots completely.
Make sure the layer of pebbles or stones is thick enough to discourage digging, but not so thick that it blocks water from reaching the roots of your plants. Using larger stones can also add a decorative touch to your flowerpots, creating a natural and earthy look.
While adding pebbles or stones to flowerpots is effective in deterring squirrels, it’s important to remember that they may simply move on to other areas of your yard.
Be sure to monitor your garden and take additional steps to keep squirrels away from other vulnerable areas such as bird feeders or fruit trees.
By combining several different tactics, you can create a squirrel-free environment and enjoy your garden without the hassle of unwanted pests.
Cover Your Fruit and Vegetables in the Garden
If you’re an avid gardener, you may have experienced the frustration of squirrels stealing your hard-earned harvest.
Fortunately, there are several ways to protect your fruit and vegetables from these pesky rodents. One of the simplest and most effective methods is to cover your plants with netting or cloches.
Netting is a lightweight and flexible material that can be draped over your plants to prevent squirrels from reaching them. It comes in various sizes and shapes, so it can be adapted to fit any garden bed or plant.
When using netting, make sure that it is secured tightly around the perimeter of your garden bed and doesn’t leave any gaps for squirrels to sneak through.
Cloches, on the other hand, are individual coverings that protect individual plants. They are typically made of glass or plastic and can be placed directly over your fruits and vegetables.
Here is garden netting that works well against birds, deer and squirrels.
Cloches are a great option for small gardens or raised beds, and they can also help extend your growing season by protecting plants from frost and cold temperatures.
Secure your Trash Bins to Keep Squirrels Out
Squirrels are known for their fondness for rummaging through trash bins in search of food.
This can lead to a messy and unsanitary situation, as well as attract other unwanted animals to your property. Therefore, it’s important to secure your trash bins to deter squirrels and other critters from getting into them.
One way to secure your trash bins is to invest in a bin with a locking lid. These types of bins typically have a latch or mechanism that prevents the lid from being easily opened by squirrels or other animals.
Another option is to use bungee cords or other straps to secure the lid of your bin tightly. This can help prevent squirrels from lifting the lid with their teeth or claws and getting inside.
Here is a link to a bungee cord lid lock that works on square or round trash bins.
In addition to securing your trash bins, it’s also important to keep the area around them clean and free of any food debris.
This can help deter squirrels and other animals from being attracted to the area in the first place. If possible, try to keep your trash bins in a location that is not easily accessible to squirrels, such as in a garage or shed.
By taking these simple steps to secure your trash bins, you can help keep squirrels and other unwanted animals from making a mess of your property and potentially causing damage.
Keep Your Garage or Shed Doors Closed
Squirrels can be a nuisance, especially if they get into your garage or shed. These curious creatures will enter any open space in search of food.
To keep them out of your garage or shed, always make sure the doors are closed and secured. This will prevent them from entering and possibly getting a free meal.
Squirrels have a keen sense of smell and can quickly find any food source. If you’re storing bird seed or any other food source in your garage or shed, it’s important to keep it in a sealed container.
The plastic packaging of store-bought seed may not be enough to keep squirrels out. By storing bird seed in a rugged sealed container, you can prevent them from detecting it and being attracted to your garage or shed.
There are many different types of storage containers, however I like the Buddeez Container since it has a nice pour spout. It also come in larger sizes and can be used for any type of dry pet food.
By taking the simple steps, of keeping doors closed and food sources secure, you can keep squirrels out of your garage or shed and prevent any potential damage.
Use an Electric Fence to Get Rid of Squirrels
If you’ve tried various methods to keep squirrels away from your garden or fruit trees, but they keep coming back, it might be time to consider using an electric fence. An electric fence can be an effective way to keep squirrels out of certain areas of your property.
You can install an electric fence around your garden or fruit trees by running a specially designed fence around the perimeter and connecting it to an electric charger.
When the squirrels come in contact with the fence, they will receive a mild shock that will deter them from coming back.
Electric fences can also be used to protect bird feeders and even chicken coops or other areas where squirrels are causing damage. By installing an electric fence around these areas, you can ensure that squirrels will not be able to access them.
If your looking for an entire kit, here is a link to an electric fence with solar changing by Starline that can be used to keep all sorts of nuisance animals out.
While an electric fence can be an effective way to keep squirrels away, it’s important to remember that it may not be the best solution for every situation. For example, if you have small children or pets that play in your yard, an electric fence may not be a safe option. In these cases, it may be better to consider alternative methods of squirrel control.
Squirrel Proof Your Bird Feeders
Squirrels can be a major problem for bird watchers, as they often raid bird feeders and can deter birds from visiting your yard. Fortunately, there are a few simple steps you can take to squirrel-proof your bird feeder and keep these furry creatures at bay.
Squirrels have a keen sense of smell and taste, and the spicy taste will deter them from eating from the bird feeder.
The hot sauce can be a nutritional benefit to birds, and they are not affected by the spicy taste like squirrels are.
Simply mix a small amount of hot pepper sauce with the birdseed and watch as the squirrels steer clear.
Another effective method is to add a baffle to the post holding your bird feeder. A baffle is a device that fits around the feeder pole and makes it difficult for squirrels to climb up to the feeder.
If a baffle is not enough, you may need to add a collar to the post as an additional deterrent.
Collars fit directly onto the feeder pole itself. This makes it difficult for squirrels to climb up the pole.
When these options are used together it can be effective at deterring squirrels and keeping them away from your bird seed.
It’s important to note that when using any type of squirrel-proofing device on your bird feeder, it’s essential to regularly check and maintain the equipment.
Squirrels are incredibly persistent and can find creative ways to circumvent even the most sophisticated barriers. By regularly checking and adjusting your squirrel-proofing measures, you can help ensure that your feathered friends remain safe and well-fed.
How to Get Rid of Squirrels Using Motion-Activated Sprinklers
A great option that can help to keep squirrels out of your yard is using motion-activated sprinklers. These sprinklers are designed to detect motion and spray water in the direction of the movement, which can startle and scare away squirrels.
One of the benefits of using motion-activated sprinklers is that they are a humane and safe way to keep squirrels away.
The water from the sprinkler is not harmful, but it can be enough to discourage squirrels from returning to your property.
In addition, motion-activated sprinklers are easy to install and can be adjusted to cover the areas where squirrels are most active. The Havahart Critter Ritter is a great choice as it is adjustable for different animals.
When using motion-activated sprinklers, place them strategically for squirrels away from bird feeders, in your garden, or near your fruit trees. Additionally, it’s a good idea to test the sprinklers to ensure that they are working properly and adjusted correctly to avoid wasting water.
Overall, motion-activated sprinklers can be an effective and humane way to keep squirrels away from your property. By installing them in the right areas and adjusting them correctly, you can create a barrier that squirrels will be hesitant to cross, which can help to protect your property and plants.
Use Sound to Scare Squirrels Away
One effective method to deter squirrels is to use sound. Squirrels are very sensitive to loud and sudden noises, so using things like horns, whistles, or even loud chirping sounds can be an effective way to scare them away.
Alternatively, playing music or talk radio can also be effective in deterring squirrels as they do not like loud, constant noise.
You can use motion-activated sound devices, a portable speaker, or place a radio near the area where squirrels are causing problems.
Be sure to adjust the volume and type of sound based on the specific location and time of day.
Keep in mind that this method may also be a nuisance to your neighbors, so use it sparingly and responsibly.
Use Motion Activated Lights to Haze Squirrels Away
Using motion-activated lights can be an effective way to haze squirrels and keep them away. Squirrels are primarily active during the day, so picking the right light is important to be an effective deterrent.
Pick a motion-activated device with bright flashing strobe lights. When using motion-activated lights, it’s important to position them strategically to maximize their effectiveness.
For example, place the lights in areas where squirrels are likely to approach, such as near their favorite food sources or along their regular travel routes.
By positioning the lights correctly, you can startle squirrels and discourage them from returning without causing any harm to the animals.
A good motion-activated light is the Prewwy Solar Motion Sensor Security Light on Amazon. It has Solar charging and is waterproof, additionally, it has sound as well as bright strobe lights.
Motion lights can be installed around your yard and garden to deter squirrels from getting too close. These lights are also useful for keeping squirrels away from your home or garage, where they might be trying to gain access.
Another area where strobe light may be effective at getting rid of squirrels is in your attic. If you suspect squirrels in your attic placing a bright strobe light in the attic space can haze them and cause them to vacate.
Use Ultrasonic Animal Repellent Devices
If you’re dealing with unwanted squirrel guests in your yard or garden, you may want to consider using ultrasonic animal-repellent devices.
These devices emit high-frequency sound waves that are unpleasant to squirrels and other animals but are undetectable to humans.
The sound waves are meant to deter the animals from entering your yard or garden and can be effective in keeping them away.
Most ultrasonic animal-repellent devices come with built-in motion sensors, so they will only activate when animals are in range.
I like the YARDEC Solar powered animal repellent for outdoor use which is a waterproof, motion activated Ultrasonic Animal Repellent. It also combines flashing LED lights with sonic and ultrasonic noises.
It also includes bright strobe lights as an added visual deterrent. These lights will flash when the device is activated, which can help scare squirrels away.
When using ultrasonic animal-repellent devices, it’s important to keep in mind that they may not work for every situation. Some animals may become habituated to the sound over time and may no longer be deterred by the device.
Additionally, the range of the device may not be enough to cover your entire yard or garden, so you may need to purchase multiple devices.
Overall, ultrasonic animal-repellent devices can be a useful tool in your squirrel control arsenal.
They are safe and humane and can be an effective way to keep squirrels out of your yard or garden. However, it’s important to use them with other squirrel control methods for the best results.
Add a Baffle or Collar Around Trees to Get Rid of Squirrels
If you have fruit and nut trees in your yard, you may find that squirrels are attracted to them, causing damage to the crops.
To keep squirrels away, you can add a baffle or collar around the trunk of the tree.
A baffle is a cone-shaped device made of metal or plastic that is installed on the trunk of the tree.
When a squirrel tries to climb up the tree, it will be blocked by the baffle and prevented from reaching the fruit or nuts.
Another option is a collar, which is a metal or plastic band that is wrapped around the trunk of the tree, preventing squirrels from climbing up.
Collars are usually made of plastic or galvanized metal, which will prevent the squirrels from gripping the tree while climbing.
To be effective, the collar must be installed about three to six feet above the ground, where squirrels cannot jump from nearby structures or trees onto the trunk.
When installing a baffle or collar, make sure it is securely attached to the trunk and cannot be easily moved or knocked off by squirrels.
You should also periodically check the device to ensure it is still in place and functioning properly. With the addition of a baffle or collar, your fruit and nut trees will be protected from squirrels, allowing you to enjoy your harvest.
Pick Up Fallen Fruits and Nuts in Your Yard
Squirrels love to forage and store their food for the winter, so it’s not surprising that your yard might become a hotspot for squirrel activity if you have fruit and nut trees.
However, one effective way to discourage squirrels from frequenting your yard is by regularly picking up any fallen fruits and nuts.
This will not only make your yard less attractive to squirrels, but it will also help prevent rotting fruit from attracting other unwanted pests like insects and rodents.
Prune or Cut Trees to Prevent Access to the Roof
Pruning or cutting trees to prevent access to your roof is an effective way to discourage squirrels from making their way into your home.
Squirrels are known to climb trees and jump onto roofs, so by removing branches that provide easy access, you can make it more difficult for them to reach your roof.
It’s important to trim any tree branches that are within 6 feet of your roofline, as squirrels can easily jump that distance.
When pruning trees, make sure to follow proper trimming techniques to avoid damaging the tree. Cut branches at the collar, the area where the branch meets the trunk, and avoid leaving stubs.
It’s also a good idea to hire a professional tree service to handle any large branches or high-reaching trees to avoid injury or property damage.
By taking these steps to prevent access to your roof, you can discourage squirrels from making their way inside your home.
Secure Your Roof from Holes or Entry Points
Squirrels can be quite crafty when it comes to finding a way into your home, and it’s important to secure your roof from any entry points to prevent them from gaining access.
Pay particular attention to the areas around dormers, vents, pipes, and other openings, as these are common entry points for squirrels. Check for any holes, cracks, or gaps that may exist and seal them up with a sealant or caulk.
If you have a chimney, it’s essential to ensure that it is properly capped to prevent squirrels and other animals from gaining access.
Roofs are particularly attractive to squirrels as they provide a warm, cozy space for them to nest, so it’s important to make sure that they are properly sealed all gaps to prevent access.
If squirrels are in your attic read my post on How to Get Rid of Squirrels in Your Attic [Step by Step].
Use a Chimney Cap to Keep Squirrels Out
Squirrels are known for their ability to find their way into tight spaces and can even enter your home through your chimney.
Once inside, they can cause damage and create a mess. To prevent this, it’s important to use a chimney cap to keep squirrels out.
Chimney caps are designed to cover the top of your chimney and prevent animals from entering. They are typically made of metal and come in a variety of sizes and shapes to fit different chimneys.
A good chimney cap will have a mesh screen that allows smoke to escape but keeps squirrels and other animals out.
Installing a chimney cap is a relatively easy and affordable way to keep squirrels out of your home.
If you’re not comfortable installing one yourself, you can hire a professional to do it for you.
Once installed, it’s important to check the cap periodically to make sure it’s still securely in place and has not been damaged by weather or animals.
By using a chimney cap, you can prevent squirrels and other animals from entering your home through your chimney, saving you time, money, and hassle in the long run.
Plant Flowers Squirrels Hate
Squirrels can wreak havoc in your garden and lawn by digging up your flower bulbs and munching on your plants.
One natural and effective way to deter squirrels from your garden is by planting flowers and plants they don’t like. By incorporating these plants into your garden, you can reduce the number of squirrels visiting your garden and damaging your plants.
One of the flowers that squirrels dislike is daffodils. These spring-blooming flowers contain toxic compounds that make them unappealing to squirrels.
Alliums, which are members of the onion family, also have a strong scent that squirrels don’t like.
Hyacinths are another spring-blooming bulb that squirrels avoid because of their strong scent. By planting these flowers in your garden, you can create a natural barrier that squirrels will avoid.
Another way to keep squirrels away from your garden is by planting herbs and other plants that have a strong scent.
Peppermint, for example, is a natural squirrel repellent. You can plant peppermint in your garden or use it in the form of an essential oil.
Other herbs that squirrels dislike include garlic, chives, and thyme. By planting these herbs and plants around the perimeter of your garden, you can create a natural barrier that will keep squirrels away.
Planting flowers and plants that squirrels don’t like is an effective way to keep these furry critters out of your garden.
Use Live Traps to Relocate Squirrels
If you have tried various methods to deter squirrels from your property and they are still causing problems, using live traps to relocate them may be your next option.
Live traps allow you to capture squirrels without harming them, and then release them in a safe location away from your property.
However, before attempting to trap and relocate squirrels, it’s important to check with your local laws and regulations to make sure it is legal to do so.
When choosing a live trap, it’s important to select one that is designed for small rodents or more specifically for squirrels.
A great multi catch option is The Squirrelinator Live Trap you can purchase on Amazon.
The trap should be placed in a location where squirrels are known to frequent, such as near bird feeders, trees, or gardens. It’s also important to check the trap frequently to ensure that any trapped squirrels are not left in the trap for an extended period.
Once a squirrel is trapped, it’s important to handle it carefully and safely. Use gloves or a towel to protect your hands, and slowly approach the trap to avoid startling the squirrel.
When releasing the squirrel, choose a location that is at least five miles away from your property and close to a food and water source. While trapping and relocating squirrels can be a humane solution to a squirrel problem, it’s important to understand that it may not be a permanent solution.
Other squirrels may move in to fill the vacancy left by the relocated squirrel. It’s important to take steps to prevent squirrels from returning, such as securing trash bins and sealing off entry points to your home or shed.
Call a Wildlife Removal Expert
If else fails to deter squirrels from your yard, it may be time to call in a wildlife removal expert. These professionals have the experience and equipment necessary to safely remove squirrels and relocate them to a more suitable habitat.
The cost of hiring a wildlife removal expert varies depending on the severity of the squirrel infestation and the methods used to remove them. On average, you can expect to pay anywhere from $300 to $500 for squirrel removal services. However, the cost may increase if the squirrels have caused damage to your property or if multiple trips are required to remove them all.
If squirrels have made a nest in your attic, the cost of removal may also increase. Removing a squirrel nest can be a delicate process that requires specialized equipment and safety measures. The average cost to remove a squirrel nest from an attic is around $500 to $700.
When choosing a wildlife removal expert, it’s important to do your research and choose a reputable company. Look for a company with positive reviews and certifications from organizations such as the National Wildlife Control Operators Association.
Additionally, be sure to ask about their methods for removing squirrels to ensure they align with your values and preferences.
Conclusion: The Best Ways to Get Rid of Squirrels
In conclusion, there are many effective ways to get rid of squirrels from your property without resorting to lethal methods. The methods listed above are all humane and safe for both humans and animals.
Whether you prefer using natural remedies such as hot pepper spray, peppermint scent, or predator urine or opt for technological solutions like motion-activated sprinklers or ultrasonic animal-repellent devices, there is a solution that will work for you.
It is important to note that in some areas, it may be illegal to trap and relocate squirrels without proper permits. Additionally, some of these methods may not work for every situation, so it may be necessary to try multiple techniques to find what works best for you.
Hiring a wildlife removal expert is always an option, but it can come at a cost.
By implementing some of these tactics, you can successfully get rid of squirrels from your property and prevent them from causing damage to your garden, bird feeders, or home.
Remember to be patient and persistent, and always prioritize the safety and well-being of both humans and animals.